In implementing the development activities such as construction of new parallel lines, rehabilitation of the existing lines and modernizing of associated railway stations under the project for improving to the railway system in Sri Lanka, it has been estimated that more than four households have to involuntarily be relocated from the proposed right of ways in four major corridors. Most of these households can be considered as squatters and some are title holders. Resettlement of them in alternative locations has to be carried out according to the ADB safeguard policy and laws, regulations and policies of the government of Sri Lanka.

As per the safeguard policy statement ADB, 2009, it is necessary to avoid involuntary resettlement wherever possible; to minimize involuntary resettlement by exploring project and design alternatives; to enhance, or at least restore, the livelihoods of all displaced persons in real terms relative to pre-project levels; and to improve the standards of living of the displaced poor and other vulnerable groups. Further, the involuntary resettlement safeguard covers physical displacement (relocation, loss of residential land, or loss of shelter) and economic displacement (loss of land, assets, access to assets, income sources, or means of livelihoods) as a result of (i) involuntary acquisition of land, or (ii) involuntary restrictions on land use or on access to legally designated parks and protected areas. It covers them whether such losses and involuntary restrictions are full or partial, permanent or temporary.

In order to perform the resettlement and land acquisition activities, two dedicated units, namely Social & Environmental Safeguard Unit and Land Acquisition Unit have been established under the PMU of the CSRP. Planning, Implementing and monitoring of involuntary resettlement together with land acquisition are carried with the assistance of consultancy firms as well as government line agencies such as Divisional Secretariats, Ministry of Lands, Valuation Department, Survey Department, UDA and Local Authorities.